Ehrlichia ruminantium is an obligately intracellular proteobacterium which causes a disease known as heartwater or cowdriosis in some wild. Ehrlichia ruminantium (formerly Cowdria ruminantium). Order Rickettsiales, Family Anaplasmataceae. • Small, Gram negative, pleomorphic coccus, and obligate. Ehrlichia ruminantium infections were assessed with the specific PCR-diagnosis targeting the PCS20 region. This screening was applied on.
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Heartwater also known as cowdriosisnintas and ehrlichiosis is a tick-borne rickettsial disease of domestic and wild ruminants. The disease is spread by bont tickswhich are members of the genus Amblyomma.
Affected mammals include cattlesheepgoatsantelopeand buffalobut the disease has the biggest economic impact on cattle production in affected areas.
The disease is common in sub-Saharan Africa and some of the West Indian islands. Ruminatnium was first identified in sheep in South Africa in the s, and had reached the Caribbean by In the Caribbean, at least, the cattle egret has been implicated in the spread of heartwater since it colonized the islands in the s.
Cowdriosis is notifiable to the World Organisation for Ehrlicuia Health. Clinical disease is more common in young animals and non-native breeds. The clinical signs of disease are caused by an increased vascular permeability and consequent oedema and hypovolaemia.
The symptoms include neurological signs such as tremors and head pressingrespiratory signs such as rumiinantium and nasal discharge, and systemic signs such as fever and loss of appetite. Physical examination may reveal petechiae of the mucous membranestachycardia and muffled heart sounds. Cowdriosis can also cause reproductive and gastrointestinal disease.
It is frequently fatal. On post-mortem examinationa ejrlichia yellow transudate that coagulates on exposure to air is often found within the thoraxpericardium and abdomen. Most fatal cases will have the hydropericardium that gives the disease its common name.
Pulmonary oedema and mucosal congestion are regularly seen along with frothy fluid in the airways and cut surfaces of the lungs. To definitively diagnose the disease, C. During the early stages of disease animals may be treated with sulfonamides and tetracyclines. In advanced disease, prognosis is poor. Tetracyclines can also be used prophylactically when animals are introduced into an area endemic with cowdriosis. A ruminantum blood vaccine is available for protection of young stock, but animals may require treatment for the disease post-vaccination.
Ectoparasiticides dips can be used to reduce exposure the animals exposure to bont ticks. In areas endemic for heartwater there is likely to be use of dips against other ticks of domestic animalssuch as Rhipicephalus Boophilus and Hyalomma species and this will usually contribute to control of vectors of Ehrlichia ruminantium.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Heartwater Scientific classification Kingdom: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Archived from dhrlichia original on Retrieved from ” https: Rickettsiales Bacteriology Ruminant diseases. Articles with ‘species’ microformats. Views Read Edit View history.