In Karen Horney’s “The Distrust Between the Sexes”, she explains how a person’s psychological history causes him/her to distrust people of the opposite sex. Distrust Between Sexes A woman gets pregnant, and her boyfriend leaves her. In Karen Horney`s The Distrust Between the Sexes, she explains how a person`s. Karen Horney- Distrust Between the Sexes. I. Background. 1. Developed her career somewhat independently of the influence of Sigmund Freud; 2. She was.
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The insecure girl develops an anxiety about being abnormal that often manifests itself as a fear that something is wrong with her genitals or that she is ugly and cannot possibly be attractive to men.
An important question for Horney is why men see women as they do. We shall look first at her ideas about feminine psychology, then at the new psychoanalytic paradigm she developed in the s, and finally at her mature theory. The fact that “a girl is exposed from birth onward to the suggestion — inevitable, whether conveyed brutally or delicately — of her inferiority” is an experience distgust constantly stimulates her masculinity complex Horney,p.
In this ideology the differentness of the weaker one will be interpreted as inferiority, and it will be proven that these differences are hetween, basic, or God’s will” Horney,p.
It is the sexually attractive female that man is afraid of. Although she initially argued that women are bound to have a masculinity complex because of their need to escape the guilt and anxiety that result from their oedipal situation, Horney soon came to feel that the masculinity complex is not inevitable but is the product of a male dominated culture and of particular kinds of family dynamics.
European exploration in the Americas led to a great demand for slaves to work in the new colonies She argued that psychoanalysis regards women as defective men because it is the product of a male genius Freud and a male dominated culture.
As he grows up, sees male continues to have a deeply hidden anxiety about the size of his penis or his potency, an anxiety that has no counterpart for the female, who “performs her part by merely being ” Horney,p. It is the typical fate of the girl to be frustrated in her love for her father, but for these women the consequences are unusually severe because of the presence of a mother or sister who dominates the situation erotically.
In discussing family dynamics, Horney focused at first on the girl’s relationship with male members of the family, but later she derived the masculinity complex and all the phenomena traditionally associated with penis envy — such as feelings of inferiority, vindictiveness, and competitiveness toward men — from the girl’s relationship with females in the family, particularly the mother. In “The Problem of Feminine Masochism”Horney challenged the idea that “masochistic trends are inherent in, or disyrust to, the very essence of female nature” Horney,p.
This statement to some may be a look in the mirror. Since Horney’s thought went through three phases, it will be best to discuss the major concepts of each phase separately.
In diatrust essays, Horney continued to analyze the male view of woman in order to expose its lack of scientific foundation. The male deals with his anxiety by erecting an ideal of efficiency, by seeking sexual conquests, and by debasing the love object.
In “Maternal Conflicts”she brought together ohrney separate features of childhood to which she had attributed the masculinity complex in previous essays: One disttust to come to reality with the fact that you must accept what has been given to you and be blessed that you are open to receive it. When one is not willing to invest everything that they have in a relationship the relationship struggles to succeed. What women chiefly envy is male privilege, and what they need is greater opportunity to develop their human capacities.
All of these features were present in Karen Horney’s childhood.
The distrust between two sexes.
This is the position of psychoanalysis, which reflects the stereotypes of male culture, but Horney identified a number of social conditions that have made women more masochistic than men.
In her essays on feminine psychology, Horney moved steadily away from Freud’s belief that anatomy is destiny and toward a greater emphasis on cultural factors as a source of women’s problems and of gender identity. In “The Distrust between the Sexes”she argued that woman is seen as “a second-rate being” because “at any given time, the more powerful side will create an ideology suitable to help maintain its position. People do not feel safe putting all of their eggs in one basket.
In “The Dread of Woman”Horney traced the male dread of woman to the boy’s fear that his genital is inadequate in relation to the mother. Feminine Psychology Nancy Chodorow locates the “political and theoretical origins” of psychoanalytic feminism with Karen Horney, whose theories form the basis “for most of the recent revisions of psychoanalytic understandings of gender and for most psychoanalytic dissidence on the question of gender in the early period as well”pp.
They tend to change partners frequently, since after securing a man they need to get out of the relationship before they get hurt. Women, and all humans for that matter, need a sense that they are needed, but at the same time humans need to know that they are protected. By investing everything it is not to be understood as overwhelming an individual with expensive things. He does this by making the bird the victim To be without a man is a disgrace, but having one proves that she is “normal”: Our primary objective must not be to identify what is essentially feminine but to foster “the full development of the human personalities of all” Paris,p.
Indeed, many of her essays deal with the “masculinity complex” similar to Adler’s “masculine protest”which she defined as “the entire complex of feelings and fantasies that have for their content the woman’s feeling of being discriminated against, her envy of the male, her wish to be a man and to discard the female role” Horney,p. She wrote that to understand the problem you must first understand that problems stem from a common background.
There is, therefore, no corresponding female dread of men. Their obsession is traced to a childhood situation in which each “had come off second best in the competition for a man” Horney,p.
This reason alone to many, is often mans excuse for keeping women out of governmental positions. The real problem is that there is no universal way to do this. What really frighten the child are not the thought of injury but the thought of having to be independent.
The Views Of Karen Horney Essay Research – Реферат
Cultural Factors In her essays on feminine psychology, Horney moved steadily away from Freud’s belief that anatomy is destiny and toward a greater emphasis on cultural factors as a source of women’s problems and of gender identity.
The essay draws on the cases of seven women whose family histories, symptoms, and social backgrounds are similar to Horney’s, and she may well have included herself in her clinical sample. In conclusion, Horney tries to explain how her thoughts can help to diminish the distrust between the sexes. The fact that we have set definitions of how a man and women should be and that these do not reach into the other things that we want is what makes up this disappointment that men and women feel.
If the couple would sit and express their opinion then they will be able to put their price on love. The Masculinity Complex Horney did not deny that women often envy men and are uncomfortable with their feminine role. She acknowledged that little girls envy the male plumbing but regarded this as psychologically insignificant.
There are many different scenarios, which lead to relationships ending because of distrust.