This article will discuss the contribution of Halford John Mackinder, one of the earliest and most influential of the contributors to the discussion. Around the young geographer, Halford J. Mackinder, grew concerned with the changing balance of international power. He argued that. This largely outdated view influenced some geopolitical thinking. Sir Halford John Mackinder was a British geographer who wrote a paper in.

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Mackinder is often credited with introducing two new terms into the English language: Mackinder identified the geopolitical nightmare that was to haunt the world’s two sea powers during the first half of the twentieth century— Great Britain and, later the United States. Thus, who ruled the Heartland would have the possibility of commanding the entire World Island. Though he continued as reader in economic geography for another 18 years, his resignation as director marked the beginning of the third phase of his career.

In he entered Christ Church, Oxford, where he studied natural sciences with a preference for biology; he obtained first-class honours in and, one year later, a second-class halofrd modern history.

Here policy may just overlap with, rather than be dictated by, geotheory. United States, country in North America, a federal republic of 50 states.

Halford Mackinder | British political geographer |

This gap in the natural defenses led to the famous conclusion that whoever ruled Eastern Europe would be in an advantageous position to rule the Heartland, and therefore the World Island, and therefore the world. Views Read Edit View history. Some analysts estimate that the fossil fuels in the region will transform it into a “new Saudi Arabia” in the coming decades.

Inhe published Britain and the British Seaswhich included the first comprehensive geomorphology of the British Isles and which became a classic in regional geography. This article includes a list of referencesbut its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations.


Halford Mackinder

To date, at least one academic study, by Mehmet Akif Okur, has critiqued the main perspective of his works. The latter opinion was strengthened, of course, by Germany’s eventual defeat.

Mackinder’s Heartland theory is a another example of inappropriately applied analogy. Hitler and the magic Nazism Hitler e il Nazismo magico. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ironically, the real reason behind the ability of the Heartland to resist attack also guarantees that it will never be able to live up to Mackinder’s forecast.

Encyclopedia of Human Geography. Halford John Mackinderthe author. See, in addition to those works already cited, reviews of the current literature in Colin Galford.

But even by this conception, the Heartland falls far short. He reiterated and expanded his Heartland view of the world, suggesting that the Atlantic Ocean would be jumped, with North America’s influence pulled into the region by its use of Britain as an “moated aerodrome”.

For this perspective, and summation of Haushofer’s writings, see Hans W. The inability to understand the other’s view is one of the great historical features of US foreign policy. If the leaders of the most powerful nation on earth were to conceptualize foreign policy as a chess game, it would virtually ensure that other nations would as well. He played a prominent part in ensuring that the university centre was established at Bloomsbury in the heart of London and not on the periphery of the metropolis.

Without a vision of what the next century ought to look like, no policies can be formulated to bring it about. Mackinder, Britain and the British Seas.

When in the Royal Geographical Society and the university established the Oxford School of Geography, it was almost inevitable that Mackinder should be hlaford first director. Daly Medal of the American Geographical Society Geographical Journal, 23, pp.


Policy is driven by analogy, both historical and theoretical. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Analogies, and their accompanying “eternal interests,” tend to persist long after their useful life is geopklitics. They disagreed about the Mackinder’s emphasis on serving the British Empire [21]. Basic Books, from after it was over. Intellectuals wedded to old ideas about the unchanging nature of power have so far failed to lead the world in the new directions that it expected.

The Geographical Pivot of History – Wikipedia

Hence, they argued that the pivot of the global political power was the land control of the Eurasia while a naval power -such as the Great Britain- was playing a secondary role. A German geopolitician and devotee of Mackinder, Karl Haushofer, spent the interwar period writing extensively about the Heartland and the need for Lebensraum additional territory deemed essential for continued national well-being for the German people.

Gerace, “Between Mackinder and Spykman: The only way America can be safe is if the continent does not unify against her. The geographical boundaries of the Heartland, to the extent that they were ever obstacles, would have hampered any attempt to use it as a springboard for hemispheric dominance.

Relevant discussion may be found halforr the talk page.

To head off any return to empire, many yalford that the West must be firm in discouraging a growth in Russian influence in the new states.