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Thus, we feel that the current sample is appropriate to help interpret general social processes at the village level, despite its limits for conducting statistical procedures. A version of this paper was presented at the meetings for the Society for American Catalkgo in St.

Although the post-depositional processes of this burial are not entirely clear, there is no evidence for disturbance of the pottery offerings associated with the burial.

Later burials dating to the Classic period show some signs of continuity in the disarticulation or removal of skeletal elements, but also include full inhumations typical of Mixteca pit burials. Faunal data indicate that the burial fill included two canine teeth from a dog ibid.

At Tayata, the symbolic removal or obstruction of faces of the deceased as evidenced by the disarticulated skull deposit and repeated face-down burials is conceptually consistent with the removal of figurine heads and the occasional removal of figurine faces.

The burial was placed face-down within the burial cut and cremated in situ as evidenced by a thick ash layer surrounding the skeletal remains, and the reddening of fired soil inside the burial cut. Evidence of a cutmark was found on the right parietal, and the overall shape of the cross-section shows it likely resulted from a biface tool and not a flake tool Duncanp.

In addition, there was evidence for marine shell production materials within the burial fill, along with figurine fragments including an arm, a finely crafted head of a female and a goggle-eyed dog A, A, A Another potential interpretation is that these figurines were unintentionally included in the burial fill.

The cranium showed evidence for pre-mortem modification in the form of lamdoid flattening, and the cranium and several of the longbones and ribs were potentially exposed to the elements prior to interment based on sun-bleaching and rodent gnaw marks.


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This feature contained one cranium and several mandibles belonging to different individuals Duncan These interpretations are supported archaeologically through the ritual cremation and disarticulation of actual catapogo and animal bodies at Tayata that parallel the catwlogo treatment of figurines.

Although rare, such linkages between ceramic figurines and actual bodies are found elsewhere in the Formative period Mixteca Alta. Introduction 1 The widespread presence of fired-clay figurines throughout the Early and Middle Formative periods in Mesoamerica ca. Aumentar Original png, k. Zeitlin eds Caciques and their people: The burial was found with loose beads and a pottery vessel as a primary offering, and domestic materials such as metate fragments, potsherds, and burned adobe brick were recovered within the burial cut.

In the Valley of Oaxaca, a decrease in household figurine use is attributed to an increasing reliance on full-time priests to execute ritual ceremonies, particularly in the late Middle Formative Marcusp.

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Other ritual paraphernalia was recovered from the altar including a broken shell object, and a greenstone celt. At the Mixteca Alta town of Nuyoo, Oaxaca, sacrificial objects are often metaphorically linked to corporeal features of humans, and frequently serve as proxy sacrifices to the gods. Aumentar Original jpeg, 1,1M. For figurines used for ancestral communication, these actions of decapitation or defacement may have prevented the unwanted return or manipulation of particular ancestors, and served to keep them out of the hands of competing households Marcusp.

Marcus Joyce and Kent V.

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Our research suggests that figurines should be understood through a holistic approach to anthropological and archaeological data. Notions of embodiment and animism among contemporary Mixtec people krrea far too complex and lengthy to succinctly describe here ibid.

Rosemary Joyce gave us advice for collecting figurine data and its categorization. Closely associated descargxr the human remains were two nearly intact vessels belonging to the Cruz C phase, including an Atoyac Yellow-White vessel, a well-crafted greenstone earspool, and several figurine fragments discussed below.


Twelve-Ollin sets fire to the body, while the cataolgo priest, One-Water, offers a bird as an accompanying sacrifice Bellasp. The refitting of such figurines is impossible despite the nearly complete excavation of structures and their associated middens.

These breakage patterns would be consistent with larger concepts of Mesoamerican termination that tend to focus on decapitation or the removal of the mandibles to deactivate or reappropriate an individual following death Duncanpp.

Figurine Embodiment and Household Ritual in an Early Mixtec Village

Regardless of figurine function, we infer that these actions demonstrate descartar importance of viewing figurines as animated objects, imbued with the ability to significantly change or alter social relationships through ritual performance.

Our analysis distinguished between two types of burn patterns on figurines: LaphamHeather A. Unlike the other dog figurines, A was also missing its front limbs. Such patterns were encountered on two examples of well-crafted figurine heads A from the Early Formative; A from the Middle Formative transition with status-marking adornment including head wraps, earflares, and a mask.

This process krrea the deactivation of figurines that parallels ritual behavior associated with burials and ritual caching at Tayata.

These figurines do not appear to have been primary offerings, although it is possible that the fragments were present during the burial rituals. Bell Catherine Ritual: The archaeological contexts at Tayata allow for an integrated application of embodiment theory with cross-field anthropological data, and reveal a deep-seated Mixtec worldview concerning the animism of corporeal objects.

Photo by Liz Farmer.


Although this may be to manipulate objects more easily, it may also reflect Mixtec religious views of animals and animal spirit companions as embodied persons in both the spiritual and material world.

Depositional evidence suggests that the altar may have been deliberately buried immediately after a ritual event Christensen and Winterp. This practice was reserved particularly for noble ancestors after death, as documented in the town of Yanhuitlan around A.