The ANC,* however, refused to disband MK,* while the CP,* AZAPO* and the PAC* baulked at the idea of holding negotiations. Notwithstanding this, CODESA 1. The result was the Pretoria Minute, an agreement that all the obstacles identified by the ANC as obstructing negotiations would be removed or addressed The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) formed an integral part of negotiating an end to apartheid and the beginning of a.

Author: Malazshura Faushura
Country: Croatia
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Career
Published (Last): 5 May 2006
Pages: 291
PDF File Size: 4.88 Mb
ePub File Size: 4.57 Mb
ISBN: 556-6-59639-236-6
Downloads: 89252
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Yozshukinos

The obvious objectives were to discuss strategies of the proposed new democratic South Africa, constitutional matters, arrangements for an interim government and what to do with the divided homelands. This year marks the 20 year anniversary of that important event. Archived from the original on 14 May Between andthe African National Congress and other mainly black opposition political organisations were banned.

The negotiations resulted in South Africa’s first non-racial electionwhich was won by the African National Congress. In the by-election the Conservative Party had won with a majority of more than 2, Signers of the Mahlabatini Declaration.

Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa

When the Pretoria meeting began Mandela announced that effective immediately, the ANC would suspend the armed struggle “in the interest of moving as speedily as possible towards a negotiated settlement and in the context of the agreement reached.

Their emotions were far dodesa raw.

Few had had any training in the use of weapons, and many were as intent on using their arms to enrich themselves at the expense of the communities they were supposed to protect as they were in protecting the negotoations from violent onslaughts. The ANC instead took to the streets with a programme of ” rolling mass action “, which met with tragedy in the Bisho massacre in Septemberwhen the army codeaa the nominally independent ” homeland ” of Ciskei opened fire on protest marchers, killing He wondered whether the government had actually lost control of the defense codea or negotiationx the violence was a deliberate ploy on the part of the government to destabilize the ANC, undermine its support base, and prevent it from organizing ANC branches on a countrywide scale.

Its deliberations continued until May when the failure of the ANC and the NP to agree on the weighted majority that would be required in an elected constituent assembly to ratify a new constitution brought negotiations to an abrupt halt. This put considerable pressure on the other parties to agree with the consensus or negotiatiins left behind. But even though the CP were not part of the process itself, it’s continued barrages of criticism that the NP was selling out the Afrikaner nation began to exact a toll on the NP.


Convention For A Democratic South Africa (CODESA) – The O’Malley Archives

In the election, with De Klerk at the helm of the National Party, the CP further increased its representation to 39 seats and secured over 50 per cent of the Afrikaner vote. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. It was Joe Slovoleader of the South African Communist Partywho in proposed the breakthrough “sunset clause” for a coalition government for the five years following a democratic election, including guarantees and concessions to all sides.

These negotiations took place between the governing National Partythe African National Congressand a wide variety of negotiatiohs political organisations.

The O’Malley Archives

Shaking Hands with Billy. The declaration was heralded by the English speaking press as a breakthrough in race relations in South Africa.

De Klerk was the state president at the time and a leader of the National Party which engineered apartheid. A xodesa declared insane – incarcerated for convenience.

Former prisoners chuckled with their captors over the circumstances of their arrest; terrorists showed off their prominent ribs, and joked that they had grown thin evading the security police; captor and captive reminisced about mutual acquaintances.

The declaration was the first of such agreements by acknowledged black and white political leaders in South Africa that affirmed to these principles. Archived from the original on 29 June This agreement led to a further series of indabas to iron out remaining details in earlyand the resumption of negotiations at Kempton Park in April CODESA Transitional politics continued after the election, with a new constitution finally agreed inand the Truth and Reconciliation Commission dealing with politically motivated crimes committed during the apartheid era.

Botha was State President. Central to this planning was an initiative that became known in Security Force circles as the Dakar Safari, which saw a number of prominent Afrikaner opinion-makers engage with the African National Congress in Dakar, Senegal and LeverkusenGermany at events organized by the Institute for a Democratic Alternative for South Africa.

Outright hatred lends itself to an antidote; lingering dislike does not.

A copy of the inventory is available in the following collection: If the government does not carry out its duties [it said] we will have to find ways and means to defend our people against these criminal attacks. This Pretoria Minute included the suspension of the armed struggle by the ANC and its military wing Umkhonto we Sizwe as well as bring the state of negotiatons to an end.


Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa – Wikipedia

While De Klerk hailed his victory 93 seats out of as an endorsement of the NP’s platform, the fact that both the CP and the DP had made inroads into its constituency meant that it was being squeezed from both the right and the left, and that the results did not constitute a radical shift in white opinion, but rather that support for the right was growing, albeit at a slow rate, slower than might be expected, given the broad outline of reforms the NP had proposed.

Statistics show rates of violent crime on the decline but crimes linked to financial gain skyrocket. Hence the need to appease the ANC was no longer essential: Among those released in were convicts facing capital punishment such as Barend Strydom and Robert McBride from opposite ends of the political spectrum. Moreover, the arming of the SDUs flooded the townships with weapons creating a stash of the wherewithal necessary for engaging in criminal activity.

This page was last edited on 16 Decemberat However, increasing local and international pressure on the government, as well as the realisation that apartheid could neither be maintained by force forever nor overthrown by the opposition without considerable suffering, eventually led both sides to the negotiating table. De Klerk, cleverly, opted for a referendum, and put a simple question to the white electorate: Archived from the original on 9 March The ANC wanted to agree to a set of procedures that would ensure that the final constitution unequivocally mandated the rule of the majority; 36 the NP government a set of procedures that would result in a final constitution that would mandate entrenched power sharing.

However, the goodwill that had been so pervasive between the ANC and the government in their initial contacts following Mandela’s release began to erode when an eruption of violence, almost all of it black-on-black, began to envelop the country and spread at frightening speed.