The mfecane was partly caused by changes in the Nguni groups that resulted in the development of the Zulu nation. Stronger leaders began to. The causes of the mfecane were emerging by the end of the eighteenth century, when population levels increased rapidly, and ecological resources were. Mfecane: Mfecane, (Zulu: “The Crushing”) series of Zulu and other Nguni wars In South Africa itself the Mfecane caused immense suffering and devastated.

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The Southern Company Value Alignment. When the rains failed, therefore, the effect was devastating.

What had caused the Mfecane?

Kololo imposed their language on the Lozi and the Zulu did the same. Cobbing’s hypothesis remains controversial and the ov about it was called the “Cobbing Controversy”. To the east, refugees from the Mfecane were assimilated into the Xhosa -speaking groups in present-day Eastern Cape Provincebecoming og Mfengu. The introduction of corn from the Americas through the Portuguese in Mozambique was one major reason for this trend. Upload Papers, win an iPhone X. This event has been dominant in the history of the Southern od Central Africa because of the areas it affected which stretched from the Tugela River in modern day South Africa to areas in modern day Botswana, Mozambique, Malawi, Zimbabwe and Zambia.

The resulting pressures led to massive displacement, famine, and war in the interior, allowing later Afrikaner settlers to seize control of most land. The Zulus conquered and assimilated smaller clans in the area.

What had caused the Mfecane? – History Forum ~ WorldHistoria

They claim that, “Shaka andDingiswaya went into this war as a solution to get land for settlement of their subjects”. The areas where the Nguni originally lived became heavily populated and there was an increase in competition for the few places that had cultivable land as well as grazing lands which later led to fighting and conquest.


Internet URLs are the best. The Mfecane can be said to be a single event because all the wars that became the Mfecane and eventually led to the rise of the Zulu state were interconnected. Subjected to successive waves of attack by other ethnic groups, they were also pressed from the West by the British colonists.

Political history of South Africa. English Language and Literature Studies – Literature.

Zwide defeated the Mthethwa and executed Chief Dingiswayo. Mfecane isiZuluZulu pronunciation: According to Cobbing, apartheid historians had mischaracterised the Mfecane as a period of internally induced black-on-black destruction. Between andhe fought wars of expansion against the Pedi, Sengu, Ndwandwe societies which forced them to move north and east wards.

Causes of the Mfecane Causes of the Mfecane: She suggests these pressures created internal movements, as well as reactions against European activity, that drove the state formations and concomitant violence and displacement. Eldredge also asserts that Cobbing downplays the importance of the ivory trade in Delagoa Bay, and the extent to which African groups and leaders sought to establish more centralised and complex state formations to control ivory routes and the wealth associated with the trade.

Mvulane’s son Ngqengelele became Shaka’s induna and chief advisor. Before the effects of the Mfecane is discussed it is important to look at factors that led to the Mfecane. At the same time, however, as a result of the Mfecane, some of the most formidable kingdoms to oppose white penetration were created—the Sotho, Swaziand Ndebeleas well as the Gaza of Mozambique. The strong ones like the Ngwane, Zulu and Mthethwa resorted to engulfing the weak ones which caused wars, displacements etc.


Both of these invasionary forces continued to travel north across Tswana territory without establishing any sort of state. Battles between the allied forces of Chief Dingiswayo and of Chief Zwideand the Ndwandwe probably mark the start of what became the Mfecane.

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Causes of the Mfecane – History – Stuvia

First of all, the population explosion in the area of Southern Africa among the Nguni people led to wars that opened the way for the Mfecane. People fought one another for meager supplies of grain and cattle, hunted down whatever game they could find, and sought out any remaining water supplies in a desperate attempt to survive.

The Swazi composite mfecqne built by the Ngwane after they crossed the Pongola river and other Sotho and Nguni chiefdoms after they came into the region.

Military innovations that involved the emergence of regimental forces i. Defeats in several clashes convinced Mzilikazi to move north towards Swaziland. Preview 2 out of 10 pages. The Sotho kingdom —69 Shaka In Shaka: What students say about Stuvia.

They also took large numbers of captives north with them, [10] finally settling north of the Zambezi River in Barotselandwhere they conquered the Lozi people. The penetration of the Boer trekkers into the interior.